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Ti3+ vs. Ti4+

Ti 3+ vs 4+ spectra (opens larger version)
The Ti L3 and L2 edge each split into 2 peaks, reflecting the eg/t2g crystal field splitting around the octahedrally-coordinated Ti cation. The Ti3+ formal valence has the spectrum shifted to a lower energy

By: Lena Fitting Kourkoutis

Microscope: FEI Tecnai T20

Energy Resolution: 0.45eV